Generally speaking, canister filters work by forcing water from the aquarium into the canister using an inlet tube. The water is then passed through a series of filter media to remove debris, harmful chemicals and microorganisms. Finally, the water is pushed back into the aquarium using a motor through the outlet tube.
We have prepared this article to provide you with the information you need to know about how canister filters work.
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What is a canister filter?
To understand how canister filters work, we need to know exactly what canister filters are.
To explain it simply, a canister filter is an external chamber (canister) that contains various filter media and most times a motor.
Canister filters are used to screen out debris, harmful chemicals and microorganisms from aquarium water. They do this by drawing water from the aquarium and passing the water through a series of filter media. This process leaves the aquarium water looking pristine and safe for your aquatic pets.
The external chamber is usually cylindrical and acts as the main chamber of the canister filter. The pump (motor) and filtering media (cartridges) are housed within the chamber.
The chamber is usually placed outside the aquarium. However, there are some models such as that are submerged inside the aquarium.
Attached to the external chamber are tubes (2 tubes). One of the tube acts as the inlet drawing water from the tank to the filter. The other tube acts as the outlet, drawing the water back to the aquarium.
How do canister filters work?
Canister filters operate through the principle of siphoning water. The water is siphoned out of the aquarium using an inlet and back using an outlet.
Siphoning is the process of creating an uninterrupted flow of water between 2 water bodies. This principle enables water to flow freely without the need of a pump.
To work effectively, canister filters use three main components namely.
- Inlet and outlet tubes
- Cartridges that hold the filtration media
- Motor (pump)
To enable you to understand how canister filters work, we will look at the function of each component separately.
1. Inlet and outlet tubes
The inlet tubes and outlet tubes connects the canister filter to the aquarium tank. These tubes are usually made of vinyl depending on the brand of the filter.
The inlet tube allows water to flow into the canister filter from the aquarium tank. The outlet tube on the other hand, allows water to flow back into the aquarium tank.
The tubes are usually adjustable in most canister filters.
Additionally, depending on the brand of the canister filter, they may offer multiple options on how water flows in and out of the tank. The options include a spray bar, jet return or lily pipe, among others.
2. Cartridges and filtration media
Inside each canister filter is a series of filter cartridges. The number of filter cartridges vary from one filter to another depending on the brand and model of the canister filter.
Some manufacturers used media trays while others use filter cartridges. The filter cartridges (media tray) performs one of three highly important functions. These however depends on the type of filter media it holds.
Mechanical filtration is the process by which a canister filter removes debris and solid waste materials from aquarium water.
Canister filters contain a form of filter media that act as a strainer. The strainer removes free floating solid particles through the process of mechanical filtration.
Depending on the brand of canister filter you are using, the strainer can be one of many things. Filter floss, special filter pads, sponge or aquarium gravel.
Chemical filtration is the process by which chemical additives removes dissolved wastes from aquatic water. Canister filters include chemical additives in their filtration system that perform this function.
Common chemical additives used include activated charcoal, purigen or other chemical resins.
The type of chemical additive used will depend on the specific brand of canister filter you are using. Some canister filters are flexible such that they may allow you to choose your preferred type of chemical additive.
Biological filtration is the process by which bacteria and other microorganisms convert your fishes’ wastes into less toxic substances.
Aquarium fish excrete waste into the aquarium constantly as they utilize the food they eat. This waste (ammonia and nitrites) is potentially toxic to fish. It causes several health problems to fish.
A biological filter converts toxic ammonia into nitrites, and toxic nitrites into nitrates.
Canister filters provide for biological filtration by providing a large surface area for growth of beneficial bacteria. The bacteria then convert the toxic waste into less toxic substances.
To provide for biological filtration, manufacturers use several different types of filter media. Most canister filters use filter media such as ceramic rings or bio rings.
Either an internal motor or an in-tank pump powers a canister filter. The motor forces water into the canister. Once filled with water, the internal pump powers the filter. The internal pump forces water out of the filter back to the aquarium tank through the filter’s outlet tube.
The location of the internal motor varies with the manufacturer. Internal motors are either built into the cover or the base of the canister filter. However, they work in the same way basically.
Internal motors eliminate the need for an external pump. External pumps take up space within the tank. You can easily clean an internal motor when servicing the filter. Therefore internal motors are advantageous.
Canisters with internal pumps operate at specific pump flow rates. Check with the manufacturer of your cannister filter for the flow rate of your pump.
How does water pass through the filtration media?
Water passes through the filtration media in a systematic manner.
First, a motor forces water from the aquarium tank into the canister through an inlet tube. The motor forces water into the canister by creating a suction force.
Once inside the canister, the water passes through a system of filter media. The filter media screens and cleans the water.
Lastly, the motor forces the clean water back to the aquarium tank through the canister’s outlet tube.
The water flow within the canister varies depending on the brand and model of the canister filter. The direction of water flow can be either of the following.
- Top to bottom
- Bottom to top
- Back to front
- Center out
- Center in
Different manufacturers have different preferences. Whatever the direction, the end result is usually the same. The aquarium water passes through a series of filter media. The filter media screens and cleans the water.
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